Chapter 2: The Production Process

The three production stages are Preproduction, Production, and Postproduction. The goal in preproduction is to outline the broad scope of the production to determine costs and goals through the planning of project proposals, premises, synopses, treatments, scripts, script breakdowns, production schedules, budgets, and storyboards. A proposal outlines all the factors related to the marketability of the production.

Before ever filming, the director stages many rehearsals to plot. Production involves detailed planning of performer blocking and camera blocking. During the actual production, the director is responsible for the entire project, so it is important to plan out as much as possible so as not to waste valuable resources. The flow between shot to shot must remain fluid. In Post-production, all recorded images in Production are analyzed and edited. With the advent of digital technology, there are many editing techniques available to alter the image, sound, or transition between images.

The differences between digital and analog production techniques are significant. Analog is still used widely today in Motion Pictures. Shooting on film gives the images a more soft, textured look. Many directors prefer this method to the newer digital technology. However, it is very labor intensive. The film roll must be changed frequently. Film is expensive so every take counts. There is no way to view the shots in real time, so the responsibility of creating the right image falls to the Director of Photography.

Digital technology is cheaper and more accessible. The Director of Photography can share their responsibilities with the other directors and producers because shots can be reviewed in real time. Digital technologies have made production faster and more efficient. Digital recording are easier to duplicate and have more flexibility than film. Digital recordings are also more resilient and less likely to break down overtime like film.

Production teams are hierarchical, but each member must work together and maintain open communications to work successfully as a team. The creative staff team consists of a Producer, Director, Assistant Director, Scriptwriter. The production Crew in media production includes a Director of Photography, Lighting Director, Art Director, Technical Director, Editor, Audio Engineer, Video Engineer.

Creative Staff may choose different Production Aesthetics including Realism, Modernism, Postmodernism or a combination of the three. Realism aims to depict an illusion of reality. Modernism relies heavily on the artist’s creativity to shape and frame the material. This approach relies on technique and form. Without the trappings of realism, the artist is free to explore and create whatever story world they can imagine. Modernism relies on the purity of the individual’s self-expression. Postmodernism rejects this purity and questions human subjectivity. It incorporates a variety of techniques from various periods and artists. This technique borrows from past art and fuses the classical with the popular.

The history of production has developed from film to digital. Film is a nineteenth-century technology that utilizes photochemistry. Developing technologies have made filmmaking more accessible and less expensive over time. Video, film and audio have developed during the twentieth century.  Antiquated moving parts in filmmaking will soon be replaced with digital equipment.


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